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Applying a hash function is a one-way operation; afterwards it can be safely used for verification without revealing the original data; for passwords, a brute force method is a feasible approach to uncover it due to its relatively short length and poor password choices of many people.
Hashing algorithms such as MD5 or SHA1 were made to verify file contents against a known hash value.
Cipher and mode Choosing the best encryption cipher and mode is beyond the scope of this answer, but the final choice affects the size of both the encryption key and initialisation vector; for this post we will be using AES-256-CBC which has a fixed block size of 16 bytes and a key size of either 16, 24 or 32 bytes.I'm currently a student and I'm studying PHP, I'm trying to make a simple encrypt/decrypt of data in PHP.I made some online research and some of them were quite confusing(at least for me).Adding a salt to the password before hashing it would render a rainbow table useless, but recent hardware advancements made brute force lookups a viable approach.That's why you need a hashing algorithm that's deliberately slow and simply impossible to optimize.
You probably want mcrypt or if it is not available I would recommend phpseclib - although it's important to note that any pure-PHP implementation of anything that involves a lot of low-level mathematics will be sloooooo